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Background to the Dutch Hospitals Data

Data analysed in: Kroonenberg, P. M. (2008). Applied multiway data analysis. Hoboken NJ: Wiley.

In order to gain insight into the growth and development of large organizations, Lammers (1974) collected data on 22 organizational characteristics (variables) of 188 Dutch hospitals from the annual reports of 1956--1966. His main questions with respect to these data were (1) whether the organizational structure as defined by the 22 variables was changing over time, and (2) whether there were different kinds of hospitals with different organizational structures and/or different trends in their structures.


Data description

The original data have not been preserved, but only the so-called optimal-scaled versions of them. The continuous raw data were first divided into 7-9 intervals and sequently the data were subjected to a categorical principal component analysis. During this analysis optimal quantifications were determined for the categories of all variables, so that all variables were rescaled to numerical variables in such a way that the average squared correlation between the variables and the first component was as high as possible. Details of this procedure can be found in Meulman, Van der Kooij and Heiser (2004). The present data set is the result of this quantification process and can be handled as if all variables are numeric.

Meulman, J.J., Van der Kooij, A.J., & Heiser, W.J. (2004). Principal components analysis with nonlinear optimal scaling transformations for ordinal and nominal data. In D. Kaplan (Ed.), Handbook of quantitative methods in the social sciences (pp. 49-70). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Rows (1st mode): Hospitals

The data set contains the data from virtually all hospitals in The Netherlands except the academic hospitals.

Columns (2nd mode): Variables

No.Situation Description
1.TrainingTraining capacity
2.Resear Research capacity
3.FinDir Financial director
4.Facili Facility index
5.QExtern Ratio of qualified nurses in outside wards
6.QRatio Ratio of qualified nurses/total number of nurses
7.Functi Number of functions
8.Staff Total staff
9.RushIn Rushing index
10.ExStaf Executive (managerial and supervising) staff
11.NMedProfNonmedical professionals
12.Admin Administrative (i.e., clerical) staff
13.ParaMd Paramedical staff
14.NonMed Other nonmedical staff
15.Nurses Total number of nurses
16.Beds Total number of beds
17.Patien Total number of patients
18.Openns Openness
19.ClinSp Main clinical specialties
20.OutPSp Main outpatient specialties
21.ClinSub Clinical subspecialties
22.OutPSub Outpatient subspecialties

Slices (3rd mode): Years

The observations were made from 1956 through to 1966.

Data arrangement

A three-way data array X = (x(i,j,k)) has the following form

                   |-----|    |i=2
              |-----|    |    |..
              |     |    |    |..
              |     |    |____|i=I=188    k=K=11
              |     |____|            k=2
              |_____|              k=1



The actual data file has the following form:

            |     |i=2
            |     |..     k= 1
            |     |..
            |     |i=2
            |     |..     k= 2
            |     |..
            |     |i=2
            |     |..     k=11
            |     |..


Thus the first mode (i) is nested in the third mode (k) and there are 188 (Hospitals) times 11 (Years) rows and 22 (Variables) columns.

Data handling


The best preprocessing is probably the standard one for three-way profile data: centring across hospitals and normalised per variable. For details see Kroonenberg (2008). Applied multiway data analysis. Hoboken NJ: Wiley (Chapters 6 and 15).


These data have kindly been made available for bonafide researchers by Prof. C.J. Lammers (†) etc. Please be sure to quote the papers mentioned above and this website when using these data in a publication.

[Download the zipped Dutch Hospitals Data]

| Centre for Child and Family Studies | Institute of Leiden Institute of Education and Child Studies | The Three-Mode Company | Three-Mode Data Sets | TOP |
P.M. Kroonenberg
Institute of Leiden Institute of Education and Child Studies, Leiden University
Wassenaarseweg 52, 2333 AK Leiden, The Netherlands
Tel. *-31-71-5273446/5273434 (secr.); fax *-31-71-5273945
E-mail: kroonenb at fsw.leidenuniv.nl

Created: 9-7-2009
Last Updated: 11-7-2009