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Background to the Multiple Personality Data

Data analysed in: Kroonenberg, P. M. (2008). Applied multiway data analysis. Hoboken NJ: Wiley.

The present data set comes from probably the most famous case of a multiple personality (Osgood & Luria, 1954). In each personality, Eve White, Eve Black, and Jane produced scores on 10 semantic differential scales about concepts related to her present life and mental state for 15 concepts. Previous three-mode analyses of these data have appeared in Kroonenberg (1983) and Kroonenberg (1985).


Data description

Osgood & Luria (1954) published the scores on semantic differential scales for each of the three personalities Eve White, Eve Black, and Jane measured at two occasions (Testings I and II). In essence, the data are a four-way data set concepts by scales by personalities by testings. We will, however, treat them here as a three-way set with 15 concepts x 10 scales x 6 administrations.

Rows (1st mode): Concepts

No.Abbreviation Description
1.Love Love
2.Child my Child
3.Doctor my Docotor
4.Me Me
5.Job my Job
6.SicknsMental illness
7.Mothermy Mother
8.Peace Peace of mind
9.Fraud Fraud
10.Spousemy Spouse
11.ContrlSelf control
13.Fathermy Father
15.Sex Sex

Columns (2nd mode): Scales

No.Abbreviation Description
1.Hot Hot - Cold
2.Worthl Worthless - Valuable
3.Relaxd Relaxed - Tense
4.Large Large - Small
5.Fast Fast - Slow
6.Clean Clean - Dirty
7.Tasty Tasty - Distasteful
8.Weak Weak - Strong
9.Deep Deep - Shallow
10.ActiveActive Passive

Slices (3rd mode): Personalities

No.Abbreviation Description
1.WhiteIEve White 1st measurement
2.WhitIIEve White 2nd measurement
3.BlackIEve Black 1st measurement
4.BlacIIEve Black 2nd measurement
5.JaneI Jane 1st measurement
6.JaneIIJane 2nd measurement

Data arrangement

A three-way data array X = (x(i,j,k)) has the following form

                   |-----|    |i=2
              |-----|    |    |..
              |     |    |    |..
              |     |    |____|i=I=15    k=K=6
              |     |____|            k=2
              |_____|              k=1

The actual data file has the following form:

            |     |i=2
            |     |..     k=1
            |     |..
            |     |i=2
            |     |..     k=2
            |     |..
            |     |i=2
            |     |..     k=6
            |     |..

Thus the first mode (i) is nested in the third mode (k) and there are 15 (Concepts) times 6 (Personalities) rows and 10 (Scales) columns.

Data handling


Semantic differenctial scales are multiway rating data. However, because they are bipolar scales their orientations are abitrary and one can therefore not sum the scores of each concept across all scales. This means that the only scaling allowed is for each scale-personaly combination. For details see Kroonenberg (2008). Applied multiway data analysis. Hoboken NJ: Wiley (Chapters 6 and 14).


These data have been published in Osgood & Luria (1954) and are therefore in the public domain. The more so because the copyright has run out and the electronic rights were not claimed at the time by the publishers. However, please quote the Osgood & Luria paper mentioned above. This website need not be cited when using these data in a publication, but it would be nice if you did.

[Download the zipped Multiple Personality Data]

| Centre for Child and Family Studies | Institute of Leiden Institute of Education and Child Studies | The Three-Mode Company | Three-Mode Data Sets | TOP |
P.M. Kroonenberg
Institute of Leiden Institute of Education and Child Studies, Leiden University
Wassenaarseweg 52, 2333 AK Leiden, The Netherlands
Tel. *-31-71-5273446/5273434 (secr.); fax *-31-71-5273945
E-mail: kroonenb at fsw.leidenuniv.nl

Created: 11-7-2009
Last Updated: 11-7-2009