# The Three-Mode Encyclopedia

## Part P

With one can go to the index of this part of the Encyclopedia, with one can go to other parts (letters) of the Encyclopedia.
##### INDEX
|Pa | Pb | Pc | Pd | Pe | Pf | Pg | Ph | Pi | Pj | Pk | Pl | Pm | Pn | Po | Pp | Pq | Pr | Ps | Pt | Pu | Pv | Pw | Px | Py | Pz |

• Parafac: PARAllel FACtor analysis  It was developed from Cattell's [1955], idea of Parallel Proportional Profiles] Parallel Proportional Profiles. (Harshman,[1970], [1972a], [1972b], [1976a], Harshman & Lundy [1984a], [1984b], [1994a]) as a statistical/data analysis model, it is a three-way generalization of Factor Analysis and Principal Components Analysis (PCA); as an array/tensor decomposition, it is a three-way generalization of singular value decomposition and principal components decomposition. as an array/tensor decomposition PARAFAC, also but seldomly referred to as PARAFAC1, is equal to CANDECOMP, which underlies the INDSCAL model for multidimensional scaling. The generalization PARAFAC2 allows oblique axis analysis (but see also direct fitting method by Kiers  and Bro) that maintains uniqueness property due to fixed angles among factors (cf. IDIOSCAL). Parafac and its generalizations encompass one of the two major families of higher-way multilinear analysis methods, the other being the family of Tucker Models for Three-Mode Principal Component Analysis (TMPCA) or Three-mode Factor Analysis as it was initially called by Tucker. The most prominent member of this family is the Tucker3 model (T3), but other types of component models exist as well, along with confirmatory factor analysis variants. Current key application areas include Chemometrics, Psychometrics, Electrical Engineering signal processing, Physics, Linguistics, and Neuroscience, also Marketing. Please note that most links in this entry are not operational. Links between square bracket [ ] refer to entries in the Three-Mode Bibliography, i.e. outside the Encyclopedia.

• Personality and social psychology

#### Personality and social psychology (before 1983)

Abstract paintings Baltink (1968,1969), Frey (1973), Litt (1966)
Achievement concepts Knobloch (1972)
Anxiousness Levin (1965), Tucker (1965)
Assertiveness Firth & C.W. Snyder (1979), Leah, Law & C.W. Snyder (1979)
Disjunctive conceptual behavior C.W. Snyder (1970, 1976)
Functional relations Groves (1978)
Implicit theories of personality Wiggins & Blackburn (1976), Van der Kloot & Kroonenberg (1982)
Life events Redfield & Stone (1979), Saile (1979), Gräser, Esser & Saile (1981)
Manual expression Gitin (1970)
Perception of social environment Triandis (1976, 1977), Triandis et al. (1967, 1975)
Person stimuli Davis & Grobstein (1966)
Personality trait profiles Stewart (1971,1974)
Personality traits Schmitt, Coyle & Saari (1977)
Reversible figures Gräser (1977)
Self-conception Tzeng (1977b)
Self-report/peer-report Bentler & Lee (1978)
Social judgment Hirshberg (1980)
Social perception Imada & London (1979)
Social structure MacCallum (1974b)
Subjective culture Triandis (1972)

• Phonetics

#### Phonetics (before 1983)

Confusion of consonants Kroonenberg & De Leeuw (1980)

• Politics

#### Politics (before 1983)

American Sands (1978), Sands & Young (1980), Shikiar (1974a,b)
Dutch Kroonenberg (1981a,c), Kroonenberg & De Leeuw (1977,1978,1980)
German Rösler (1979)
Swedish Sjöberg (1977)
US Senate Wainer, Gruveaus & Zill (1973)

• Portuguese - papers written in Portuguese

•
• Psychiatry

#### Psychiatry (before 1983)

heart conditions Walter (1976)
neuroticism Leichner (1975)
schizophrenicity Mills & Tucker (1966)

• Psychology

#### Psychology -- various (before 1983)

adjective similarity Tucker (1972a), MacCallum (1976b)
leisure London, Crandall & Fitzgibbons (1977)
road research Snyder & Law (1981)
soft drinks Cooper (1973)
word association Rychlak, Flynn & Burger (1979)

• Psychophysics

#### Psychophysics (before 1983)

psychomotor learning Fruchter (1968)
size-weight illusion Groves (1978)
synesthetic thinking Wicker (1966,1968)
sound quality Gabrielsson & Sjögren (1974/75)

•

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P. M. Kroonenberg
Education and Child Studies, Leiden University
Wassenaarseweg 52, 2333 AK Leiden, The Netherlands
Tel. *-31-71-5273446/5273434 (secr.); fax *-31-71-5273945
E-mail: kroonenb at fsw.leidenuniv.nl

First version : 03/06/2005;